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ESDP Operations


The EU has undertaken the following operations since the ESDP became operational in 2003:

  • since January 2003: police mission (EUPM) in Bosnia and Herzegovina to assist local police in re-building the police force and in the fight against organised crime and corruption. The mission has been extended until the end of 2007
  • March to December 2003: military operation CONCORDIA to stabilise the situation in Macedonia (using NATO resources and capabilities)
  • December 2003 to December 2005: police mission to build a professional police force in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (EUPOL PROXIMA)
  • June to September 2003: military operation ARTEMIS in the Democratic Republic of the Congo under French leadership to stabilise the security situation and improve the humanitarian situation in the Ituri district
  • December 2004: the EU took over the formerly NATO-led SFOR operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, code name EUFOR ALTHEA – this is the largest EU crisis management operation to date (approx. 7 000 soldiers)
  • July 2004 to July 2005: EUJUST Themis civil mission in Georgia to reinforce the rule of law
  • since April 2005: European police experts have been advising police forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo as part of Operation EUPOL Kinshasa
  • since May 2005: also in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, European experts have been supporting the security sector reform process (Operation EUSEC Congo)
  • since July 2005: civil operation EUJUST Lex: Training of senior Iraqi judicial officials at training sites outside Iraq in the establishment of modern criminal justice based on the rule of law
  • July 2005: to assist the African Union’s Operation AMIS II peacekeeping mission in Darfur Province in Sudan, the EU decided to launch an operation to provide the African Union with practical support both in the military and policing fields (e.g. by transporting African peacekeeping troops to the area of operations)
  • September 2005: launch of the EU observer mission in Aceh. At the request of both parties to the conflict, the EU (with the participation of a number of ASEAN states) has been monitoring the implementation of the peace agreement between the Indonesian government and separatists in Aceh Province in Northern Sumatra, and more particularly the hand-over and destruction of weapons by the fighters of the Free Aceh Movement (GAM), the release of imprisoned GAM activists, the reintegration of GAM fighters into civil society, the withdrawal of Indonesian troops and police units from the region, and the observation of the human rights situation.
  • 15 November 2005: Israel and the Palestinian Authority conclude an agreement on opening the Rafah international border crossing from Gaza to Egypt. Implementation of the agreement is intended to bring a significant improvement in the political climate in the region. Under this agreement, approximately 70 EU observers in the course of a year will supervise access and traffic at the border.
  • since 1 December 2005: the EU has been performing an observer mission at the Ukrainian-Moldavan border (border assistance mission/BAM). Unannounced inspections by initially 50 EU observers for a period of 18 months are designed to bring an improvement in Ukrainian/Moldavan cooperation on border controls. The mission will also create the conditions for solving the conflict in Transnistria.
  • 1 January 2006: launch of a police mission in the Palestinian Territories (EUPOL COPPS). A sustainable, efficient police force complying with recognised international standards is to be established under Palestinian responsibility during a mission of at least three years’ duration. Thirty EU experts will advise Palestinian police officers.
  • When the EUPOL PROXIMA mission ends, the EU Police Advisory Team (EUPAT) in Macedonia will assist the EU Special Representative’s office for a transition period until May 2006. The European Commission will then continue the support work with projects of its own.

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Date: 30.12.2005